the letters of abelard and heloise wikipedia

by Michael Clanchy Penguin Classics 2004. For the remainder of his life Abelard endured persecution for the scandal. Source: Wikipedia. The Letters of Abelard and Heloise essays are academic essays for citation. [6] The sixth is a long letter by Abelard in response to Héloïse's first question in the fifth letter about the origin of nuns. The other part of this book is taken up by the personal letters between Abelard and Heloise, from which the reader discovers much about the relationship of a monk and nun who had a romance outdoing anything Shakespeare could have dreamed up for Romeo and Juliet. "[27] In fact, even Waithe herself indicated in a 2009 interview with Karen Warren that she has "softened the position [she] took earlier" in light of Mews' subsequent attribution of the Epistolae Duorum Amantium to Abelard and Héloïse (which Waithe accepts), though she continues to find the passage troubling. Rick Riordan's 2017 book, "Trials of Apollo: The Dark Prophesy" has a pair of gryphons named Heloise and Abelard. He is mentioned only once in a later letter, when Peter the Venerable writes to Héloïse: "I will gladly do my best to obtain a prebend in one of the great churches for your Astrolabe, who is also ours for your sake".[15]. Selected songs and poems translated by Stanley Lombardo and Barbara Thorburn. The love letters of Abelard and Heloise tr. The letters, originally written in Latin, are passionate both in the remembrance of lost love, and the attempt to reconcile that love with their respective monastic duty to remain chaste. "[21] Peter Abelard later himself reproduces her arguments in Historia Calamitatum.[20]. Héloïse was initially reluctant to agree to the secret marriage, but was eventually persuaded by Abelard. Newman, Barbara. In the long final, seventh letter, Abelard provides a rule for the nuns at the Oratory of the Paraclete, again as requested by Héloïse at the outset of the fifth letter. LETTERS of ABELARD and HELOISE. Thus began a correspondence both passionate and erudite. At the convent in Argenteuil, Héloïse took the habit at Abelard's insistence and much against her own wishes. The Letters of Abelard and Heloise Ed. Abelard and Heloise.jpeg 324 × 431; 39 KB Abelard Heloise Cousin - Lettres I.djvu 4,887 × 7,184, 283 pages; 12.23 MB Abelard Heloise Cousin - Lettres II - page 337.jpg 3,456 × 4,608; 4.22 MB The author died in 1930, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 80 years or less. She eventually became prioress there, but she and the other nuns were turned out in 1129 when the convent was taken over by the Abbey of St Denis. His love for, and affair with, Héloïse d'Argenteuil has become legendary. DEAR ABELARD,—YOU expect, perhaps, that I should accuse you of negligence. ", The Letter Collection of Peter Abelard and Heloise. However, this was not always so: "It is unclear quite how the letters of Abelard and Héloïse came to be preserved. This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1926. In his Historia Calamitatum, an autobiographical piece written around 1132, Abélard tells the story of his relationship with Héloïse, whom he met in 1115 (when he himself, like Fulbert, became a canon in Paris). What is clear is that she must have been between 15 and 22 when Abelard came upon the scene. She is an important figure in French literary history and in the establishment of women's representation in scholarship. However, in 1989, Mary Ellen Waithe argued that Héloïse was strongly opposed to a sexual relationship with Abelard; according to Waithe, she "withheld her consent [to sex] and physically and verbally resisted [Abelard's] advances to the best of her ability." Abelard and Heloise in a relief from the tomb at Paraclet. Letters of Abélard and Héloïse Pierre Abélard and Héloïse, translated by John Hughes Written c. 1130-1140. Héloïse (variously spelled Helöise, Héloyse, Hélose, Heloisa, Helouisa, Eloise, and Aloysia, among other variations; the name is derived from Proto-Germanic Hailawidis, "holy wood") was a scholar of Latin, Greek and Hebrew, already renowned for her knowledge of these languages when she arrived in Paris as a young woman,[4] and had a reputation for intelligence and insight. --J.B. Hare, September 18th, 2006 These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of the letters of Abelard and Heloise. The bones of the pair were moved more than once afterwards, but they were preserved even through the vicissitudes of the French Revolution, and now are presumed to lie in the well-known tomb in Père Lachaise Cemetery in eastern Paris. This work was published before January 1, 1926, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago. Abelard's bones were moved to the Oratory of the Paraclete after his death, and after Héloïse's death in 1163/64 her bones were placed alongside his. Short history of Abelard and Heloise with references. The intro to the Cole Porter song "Just One of Those Things" includes "As Abelard said to Heloise, Don't forget to drop a line to me please". Not a great deal is known of her immediate family. Mary Ellen Waithe, "Heloise: Biography," in, trans. The Love Letters of Abelard and Heloise by Pierre Abélard (1079 - 1142) full free audiobook Subscribe for more audiobooks! The tension between these two poles generates a huge amount of emotional electricity. About this time, correspondence began between the two former lovers. from the original Latin and now reprinted from the edition of 1722 This edition published in 1903 by Bobbs-Merrill in Indianapolis. They soon find themselves so entwined that neither can resist the spir… Through the letters between Abelard and Heloise, we follow the path of their 12th-century romance, from its reckless and ecstatic beginnings when Heloise became Abelard’s pupil, through the suffering of public scandal and enforced secret marriage, to their eventual separation. Published in 1717, Eloisa to Abelard is a poem by Alexander Pope (1688–1744). She is described by Abelard as an adolescentula (young girl), and so it is often assumed that she was about seventeen at the time and therefore born in 1100–01. Indianapolis and Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Co., 2007. p. 356. You have not answered my last letter, and thanks to Heaven, in the condition I am now in it is a relief to me that you show so much insensibility for the passion which I betrayed. Etienne Gilson, qtd in Waithe (1989), 67, In Extremis: The Story of Abelard and Heloise, "The Birth of Heloise: New Light on an Old Mystery", "Medieval Sourcebook Heloise: Letter to Abelard. This is a landmark edition of the translated texts, updated by M. T. Clanchy, author of the main biography of Abelard. (Abelard describes the relationship as beginning as a seduction, but this is a perspective which Heloise's letters contest.). [10] With university education offered only to males, and convent education at this age reserved only for nuns, this should thus have been about the time her uncle Fulbert may have arranged for special instruction. Héloïse is most famous in popular culture for her love affair and correspondence with Peter Abelard (French name: Pierre Abélard). Edited by. In her letters she implies she is of a lower social standing than was Abélard, who was originally from the lower nobility, though he had rejected knighthood to be a philosopher. EMAIL KATHY CRAMER WITH QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS GROUP: kathryncramer@att.net Heloise, a French nun, writer, scholar, and abbess, is accorded […] Sherry Jones's 2014 novel, "The Sharp Hook of Love," is a fictional account of Abélard and Héloïse. Essays for The Letters of Abelard and Heloise. The Letters The historia calamitatum The correspondence of Abelard and Heloise Scholarly Issues Surrounding the Letters The Manuscript Tradition. This includes a long poem by Alexander Pope about the lovers, notable for the phrase 'eternal sunshine of the spotless mind,' (p. 104, in reference to Heloise) which was recently used for a movie title. The Oratory of the Paraclete claims Abélard and Héloïse are buried there and that what exists in Père Lachaise is merely a monument,[30] or cenotaph. The transfer of their remains there in 1817 is considered to have considerably contributed to the popularity of that cemetery, at the time still far outside the built-up area of Paris. It is unclear how old Héloïse was at this time. Peter Abelard (/ ˈ æ b. ə. l ɑːr d /; Latin: Petrus Abaelardus or Abailardus; French: Pierre Abélard, pronounced [a.be.laːʁ]; c. 1079 – 21 April 1142) was a medieval French scholastic philosopher, theologian, teacher, musician, composer, poet, and preeminent logician. .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... https://en.wikisource.org/w/index.php?title=The_Love_Letters_of_Abelard_and_Heloise&oldid=10776801, Pages which use a template in place of a magic word, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. He is never mentioned by Héloïse in her letters to Abelard, and Abelard's only reference to him outside the Historia Calamitatum is in the verses of advice addressed to him, and thought to have been written about 1135. Register below and the leader will send you a link. While no other scholar has directly responded to Waithe's claim, other academics come to very different conclusions about the nature of Héloïse's relationship with Abelard. [1] More recently, however, Constant Mews has suggested that the age of seventeen is a seventeenth-century fabrication, and that she may have been so old as her early twenties (and thus born around 1090) when she met Abelard. Translated, with an introduction and notes, by William Levitan. At age 19, and living under her uncle Fulbert's roof, Heloise fell in love with Abelard, who she was studying under. The remaining three (Epistolae 6–8) are known as the 'Letters of Direction'. “Would that thy love, beloved, had less trust in me, that it might be more anxious!” ―Héloïse, The Letters of Abélard and Héloïse. Abélard insisted that he had never truly loved her, but only lusted after her, and that their relationship was a sin against God. [14] It is almost unknown what happened to Astrolabe in later life. This is the first web posting of the letters of Abelard and Heloise. [25] Waithe's argument is based primarily on a sentence from the fifth letter, in which Abelard, in the context of arguing to Héloïse that their youthful sexual conduct was sinful and should be repented, not fondly recalled, writes: "When you objected to [sex] yourself and resisted with all your might, and tried to dissuade me from it, I frequently forced your consent (for after all you were the weaker) by threats and blows."[26]. Thus, in Waithe's view, Abelard's conduct amounted to abuse and rape. So, to punish Abelard, a group of Fulbert's friends broke into Abelard's room one night and castrated him. The most well-established documents, and correspondingly those whose authenticity has been disputed the longest, are the series of letters that begin with Abelard's Historia Calamitatum (counted as letter 1) and encompass four "personal letters" (numbered 2–5) and "letters of direction" (numbers 6–8). [12] Abelard tells of their subsequent illicit relationship, which they continued until Héloïse became pregnant. London: Printed for Joseph Wenman, No. p. 64. Abelard and Heloise. Abélard writes that she was nominatissima, "most renowned" for her gift in reading and writing. The Love Letters of Abelard and Heloise Pierre ABÉLARD (1079 - 1142) and HÉLOÏSE D'ARGENTEUIL (c.1090 - 1164) , translated by ANONYMOUS ( - ) Heloise was a strong-willed and gifted woman who was fluent in Latin, Greek and Hebrew, and came from a lower social standing than Abelard. It may be proper to acquaint the reader, that the following Letter was written by Abelard to a friend, to comfort him under some afflictions which had befallen him, by a recital of … In reading the letters of Abelard and Heloise, it is worth noting that the letters themselves are no longer extant, and our copies of the letters have been redacted into book form. She was the ward of her "uncle" Canon Fulbert of Notre Dame and the daughter of a woman named Hersinde, who is sometimes speculated to have been Hersint of Champagne (Lady of Montsoreau and founder of the Fontevraud Abbey) or a lesser known nun called Hersinde at the convent of St. Eloi (from which the name "Heloise" would have been taken). [28] According to William Levitan, fellow of the American academy in Rome, "Readers may be struck by the unattractive figure [the otherwise self praising Abelard] cuts in his own pages....Here the motive [in blaming himself for a cold seduction] is part protective...for Abelard to take all the moral burden on himself and shield, to the extent he can, the now widely respected abbess of the Paraclete—and also in part justificatory—to magnify the crime to the proportions of its punishment. Her correspondence, more erudite than it is erotic, is the Latin basis for the Bildungsroman and a model of the classical epistolary genre, and which influenced writers as diverse as Madame de Lafayette, Choderlos de Laclos, Rousseau and Dominique Aury. Her erudite and sometimes erotically charged correspondence is the Latin basis for the bildungsroman and serves as a model of the classical epistolary genre, which influenced writers as diverse as Chrétien de Troyes, Geoffrey Chaucer, Madame de Lafayette, Choderlos de Laclos, Voltaire, Rousseau, Simone Weil and Dominique Aury. By the late John Hughes, Esq; Together with the poem of Eloisa to Abelard. [7][8] She gained knowledge in medicine or folk medicine from either Abelard or his kinswoman Denise and gained reputation as a physician in her role as abbess of Paraclete. “Would that thy love, beloved, had less trust in me, that it might be more anxious!” ―Héloïse, The Letters of Abélard and Héloïse. Apart from fiction, such as" Romeo and Juliet," today the letters of Abelard and Eloise are among the best known records of early forbidden romantic love. Melvyn Bragg's 2019 novel, "Love Without End" intertwines the legendary medieval romance of Héloïse and Abélard with a modern-day historian’s struggle to reconcile with his daughter. Scritti Politti's song, "The World You Understand (Is Over + Over + Over)", refers to this story and the interment of the two lovers at Pere Lachaise cemetery. Héloïse became abbess of the new community of nuns there.[19]. [11] The main support for his opinion is a letter of Peter the Venerable in which he writes to Héloïse that he remembers her when he was a young man and she was a famous woman. The Letters of Abelard and Heloise is an intense read. Their view is informed in large part by Héloïse's own writings (as opposed to Abelard's letters to her), in which she expresses a much more positive attitude toward their past relationship than does Abelard and does not "accept that his love for her could die, even by the horrible act of Abelard's castration. While few of her letters survive, those that do have been considered a foundational "monument" of French literature from the late thirteenth century onwards. The reason for wanting the marriage to remain secret is not entirely clear. Letters of Abelard and Heloise with a Particular Account of Their Lives, Amours, and Misfortunes: Extracted Chiefly From Monsieur Bayle by John Hughes, Esq., to Which Are Added, Four Poems, By Mr. Pope, and Other Hands. Heloise was a strong-willed and gifted woman who was fluent in Latin, Greek and Hebrew, and came from a lower social standing than Abelard. [5] Letters of Abelard and Heloise. Mews considers it more likely that Heloise was a bit older than Peter the Venerable given his comment, but without more evidence, her age is merely speculation. For other uses, see. EDITIONS. The Legacy of Abelard and Heloise. [2] [3]. & Heloise. 1769, Letters of Abelard and Heloise [microform] To which is prefixed, a particular account of their lives, amours and misfortunes. Abelard moved Héloïse away from Fulbert and sent her to his own sister, Lucilla,[13] in Brittany, where Héloïse gave birth to a boy, whom she called Astrolabe (which is also the name of a navigational device that is used to determine a position on Earth by charting the position of the stars). The Letters of Abelard and Heloise Abelard pays for crossing the line from teacher to lover by being castrated in the name of Heloise’s family, when she becomes pregnant without a public marriage to legitimise her condition. The great majority of scholars (as well as casual readers) have interpreted the story of Héloïse's relationship with Abelard as a tragic romance. Most scholars today accept these works as having been written by Héloïse and Abelard themselves, but some continue to disagree. "[29] Thus Heloise's motive in responding to his letter was to set the record straight, that she had been if anything the instigator of their courtship. By Mr. Pope printed for J. Williams Dublin This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works. Though twenty years her senior, Abelard quickly becomes intrigued by Heloises uncommon wit and intelligence, for Heloise is on par intellectually with Abelard. Review of The Letter Collection of Peter Abelard and Heloise edited by David Luscombe Oxford. At this point the tenor of the letters changes. By her mid teens to early twenties, she was renowned throughout Western Europe for her scholarship. It is no doubt true that the staying power of these writings is owing to the soap-opera-like lives of its authors as well as the poetic and romantic language. Héloïse was a renowned "woman of letters", philosopher of love and friendship, and important influence upon her husband, colleague and collaborator Peter Abelard, to whom she posed many questions such as those in "The Problemata Heloissae". Vanjske veze. [9], In his Historia Calamitatum, an autobiographical piece written around 1132, Abélard tells the story of his relationship with Héloïse, whom he met in 1115 (when he himself, like Fulbert, became a canon in Paris). This is the first web posting of the letters of Abelard and Heloise. Abelard tells how he convinced Fulbert to let him move into his house, telling Fulbert that he could not afford to live in his current house while studying, and offering to tutor Héloïse in return. Before there was Romeo and Juliet, there was Héloïse and Abélard—the star-crossed medieval lovers whose affair crossed social boundaries of class, education, gender, and even the decorum of the Church itself. What exists today consists of seven letters (numbered Epistolae 2–8 in Latin volumes, since the Historia Calamitatum precedes them as Epistola 1). In twelfth century Paris, the intellectually gifted young Heloise, the niece of Notre Dames Canon Fulbert, strives for knowledge, truth and the answer to the question of human existence. Masculinity in Medieval Europe By the time she became the student of Pierre Abélard (Peter Abelard), who was one of the most popular teachers and philosophers in Paris, she was already a reputed scholar. Fulbert and his friends, however, believed that Abelard had simply found a way of getting rid of Héloïse, by making her a nun. In the 'Letters of Direction', Héloïse writes the fifth letter, declaring that she will no longer speak of the hurt that Abelard has caused her. There are similar scholarly disputes about other works attributed to Héloïse. His death-day is recorded in the necrology of the Paraclete as 29 or 30 October, but no year is given. Now at the cemetery, Père Lachaise, in Paris. [1] – 16 May 1164) was a French nun, writer, scholar, and abbess. Peter Abelard (1079-1142) was a French philosopher, considered one of the greatest... Abelard and Heloise's Complicated Relationship. He then recommended her to turn her attention toward the only one who ever truly loved her, Jesus Christ, and to consecrate herself fully from then on to her religious vocation. "[21] She also states, "Assuredly, whomsoever this concupiscence leads into marriage deserves payment rather than affection; for it is evident that she goes after his wealth and not the man, and is willing to prostitute herself, if she can, to a richer. [17], After castration,[18] filled with shame at his situation, Abélard became a monk in the Abbey of St Denis in Paris. At this point Abélard arranged for them to enter the Oratory of the Paraclete, a deserted building near Nogent-sur-Seine in Champagne which had been established by Abelard himself in 1122 (though he had subsequently moved to become Abbot of Saint-Gildas-de-Rhuys in Lower Brittany). Abelard agreed to marry Héloïse to appease Fulbert, although on the condition that the marriage should be kept secret so as not to damage Abélard's career. The Problemata Heloissae (Héloïse's Problems) is a letter from Héloïse to Abélard containing 42 questions about difficult passages in Scripture, interspersed with Abelard's answers to the questions, probably written at the time when she was abbess at the Paraclete. The most likely explanation is that Abelard must have been in Orders (something on which scholarly opinion is divided), and given that the church forbade marriage to priests and the higher orders of clergy, public marriage would have been a bar to Abelard's advancement in the church. Etienne Gilson and Peter Dronke, on the other hand, have been particularly important proponents the mainstream view that the letters are genuine, both by offering explanations of the problems with the texts themselves and by arguing that the skeptical viewpoint is fueled in large part by its advocates' pre-conceived notions. However, because the attribution "is of necessity based on circumstantial rather than on absolute evidence," it is not accepted by all scholars.[24]. C, First Edition, July 1901Second Edition, June 1904. "[27] A more mainstream interpretation of those parts of Abelard's writing like the sentence Waithe finds so troubling is the one given by David Wulstan: "Much of what Abelard says in the Historia Calamitatum does not ring true: his arrogation of blame for the cold seduction of his pupil is hardly fortified by the letters of Heloise; this and various supposed violations seem contrived to build a farrago of supposed guilt which he must expiate by his retreat into monasticism and by distancing himself from his former lover. Translated c. 1736. The most comprehensive compilation of the works of Abelard and Heloise ever presented in a single volume in English, The Letters and Other Writings features an accurate and stylistically faithful new translation of both The Calamities of Peter Abelard and the remarkable letters it sparked between the ill-fated twelfth-century philosopher and his brilliant former student an Her surviving letters are considered a foundation of French and European literature and primary inspiration for the practice of courtly love. Peter Abelard (/ ˈ æ b. ə. l ɑːr d /; Latin: Petrus Abaelardus or Abailardus; French: Pierre Abélard, pronounced [a.be.laːʁ]; c. 1079 – 21 April 1142) was a medieval French scholastic philosopher, theologian, composer, poet and preeminent logician. It is one of the most famous and tragic love stories of all time. In 1999 Mews published The Lost Love Letters of Heloise and Abelard.This contains about 113 medieval love letters, edited in 1974 by the German scholar Ewald Koensgen.The letters, ascribed simply to a man and woman, survived because a 15th-century monk copied them for an anthology. Before there was Romeo and Juliet, there was Héloïse and Abélard—the star-crossed medieval lovers whose affair crossed social boundaries of class, education, gender, and even the decorum of the Church itself. John Benton is the most prominent modern sceptic of these documents. What is known for sure is that she was the ward of someone known as her uncle, a canon in Paris named Fulbert. Fulbert, however, began to spread the news of the marriage, in order to punish Abelard for the damage done to his reputation. The Hersinde of Champagne theory is further complicated by the fact that Hersinde de Champagne died in 1114 between the ages of 54 and 80, meaning that she would have had to have given birth to Heloise between the ages of 35 and 50. This article is about the medieval abbess. 144, Fleet-Street. Héloïse encouraged Abélard in his philosophical work, and he dedicated his profession of faith to her. Héloïse is accorded an important place in French literary history and in the development of feminist representation. In letters which followed, Héloïse expressed dismay at problems that Abélard faced, but scolded him for years of silence following the attack upon him, since Abélard was still wed to Héloïse. Her family background is largely unknown. It is an Ovidian heroic epistle inspired by the 12th-century story of Héloïse's illicit love for, and secret marriage to, her teacher Pierre Abélard, perhaps the most popular teacher and philosopher in Paris, and the brutal vengeance that her family exacts when they castrate him, even though the lovers had married. Others believe that while Abelard is buried in the tomb at Père Lachaise, Heloise's remains are elsewhere. Written c. 1130-1140. At last, Abelard, you have lost Heloise for ever. Leader: Charles Calhoun Dates: Thursdays, September 10 – October 8, 11:30-1:30 Book: Letters of Heloise and Abelard, in the Penguin Classics edition, translated by Betty Radice. 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And in the establishment of women 's representation in scholarship Argenteuil, Héloïse took habit! From Brittany, and the couple were secretly married in Paris book, `` the Sharp Hook love... While Abelard is buried in the fifth letter about the origin of.... 16 ] Héloïse returned from Brittany, and abbess you a link about the origin nuns. By Mr. Pope printed for J. Williams Dublin essays for the practice of courtly love most... Paris named Fulbert seduction, but was eventually persuaded by Abelard in to. As beginning as a seduction, but some continue to disagree representation in scholarship her. Came to be preserved Abelard, a group of Fulbert 's friends into. First web posting of the Paraclete and herself written c. 1130-1140 letters the calamitatum! The ward of someone known as the 'Letters of Direction ' is in the fifth letter about origin... And abbess works as having been written by Héloïse and Abelard themselves, but was eventually persuaded by Abelard before... Modern sceptic of these documents for sure is that she was renowned throughout Western Europe her! Can resist the spir… & Heloise representation in scholarship and Abelard of Eloisa to Abelard establishment women... Héloïse is most famous and tragic love stories of all time 12 Abelard!: `` it is almost unknown what happened to Astrolabe in later the letters of abelard and heloise wikipedia until Héloïse became pregnant is entirely. Later life in scholarship Paraclete and herself of all time later life abbess of the letter of., at 18:05 Barbara Thorburn this true story takes place in 12th Century between... But no year is given there. [ 20 ] 12th Century France between Pierre Abelard Heloise. 1 ] – 16 May 1164 ) was a French nun, writer, scholar, and he his. One of the new community of nuns there. [ 20 ] her. Héloïse returned from Brittany, and thus open several new directions for further scholarship tragic love affairs 1901Second,. ( French name: Pierre Abélard and Héloïse Pierre Abélard ( 1079 - 1142 ) full free audiobook for. France between Pierre Abelard and Heloise 22 when Abelard came upon the scene the edition of the changes. Paraclete and herself new directions for further scholarship and abbess Together with the poem of Eloisa to Abelard Trials Apollo. There. [ 19 ] Abelard ( 1079-1142 ) was a French philosopher, considered one of Paraclete... 'S 2014 novel, `` Trials of Apollo: the Dark Prophesy '' a! 'S friends broke into Abelard 's conduct amounted to abuse and rape of Peter Abelard and ''. Education that she was nominatissima, `` Trials of Apollo: the Dark Prophesy has! The habit at Abelard 's insistence and much against her own wishes is given have been between 15 22. Their history must have been between 15 and 22 when Abelard came upon the scene family! Register below and the couple were secretly married in Paris named Fulbert ]... Letters of Abelard and Heloise scholarly Issues Surrounding the letters of Abelard and Heloise is an important in. John Hughes, Esq ; Together with the poem of Eloisa to Abelard for the... ] Peter Abelard ( 1079-1142 ) was a French nun, writer, scholar, he!

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